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Shaped charge liner

A liner for a explosive shaped charge, such as those used in perforating operations in oil and gas wells, is formed from a powdered metal mixture that includes molybdenum A typical modern shaped charge, with a metal liner on the charge cavity, can penetrate armor steel to a depth of seven or more times the diameter of the charge (charge diameters, CD), though greater depths of 10 CD and above have been achieved Usually, shaped charge liners are classified as single cone, double cone, trumpet, and single cone trumpet in shape. In this study, a single cone liner is adopted because it is made easily and a clear contrast can be presented in experiment AES Linear Shaped Charge (LSC) is an explosive enclosed in a seamless metal sheath and fabricated in continuous lengths shaped in the form of an inverted V. When detonated, the V-shaped metal liner with explosive core produces a uniform linear cutting action. This cutting action

US6354219B1 - Shaped-charge liner - Google Patent

  1. the shaped charge liner could be fabricated from nickel, iron, or other metals, one could observe the signature of say, nickel or iron, entering the Earth's atmosphere. Also, the hypervelocity jet particles could be tracked to study hypersonic aerodynamic effects. I
  2. The Shaped Charge Jet The first section of this paper reviews what is expected from a conical shaped charge liner. As illustrated in Figure 1, the shaped charge jet tip reaches 10 kms-l some 40 µs after detonation, giving a cone tip acceleration of about 25 million g. Figure 1. Flash X-ray of a collapsing copper cone
  3. charges with conical liners, hemispherical liners, or bow-shaped liners all collapse and form jets and/or slugs in a different manner. Of course, the formed penetrators experience some overlap, i.e., a shaped charge with a truncated hemispherical liner or a shaped charge with a wide angle conical liner may look like an EFP. Walter
  4. A shaped charge or explosively formed penetrator liner and a method for producing the liner. The liner is preferably formed from a metal having a fine, uniform grain structure. The liner is preferably produced by an electron beam deposition process. Skip to: Description · Claims · References Cited · Patent History · Patent Histor
  5. ishing its effectiveness in such cases
  6. um, copper, and other metallic materials. Sign in to download full-size imag

Shaped charge - Wikipedi

The shaped charge consists of a cone or cylinder-shaped high explosive, such as HMX embedded in a plastic binder. The charge is partially hollowed out and filled with a cone of metal called the liner. This is the portion that becomes the superheated jet. When the explosive is detonated, the liner cone is compressed into a jet and accelerated. WE KNOW LINEAR. PacSci EMC manufactures multiple linear explosive products, including Linear Shaped Charge (LSC) and Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC), in a dedicated facility in Hollister, CA. Our LSC / FLSC consists of a continuous explosive core enclosed in a seamless metal sheath, formed into an appropriate shape to sever the target

A shaped charge liner is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy. Various types are used to cut and form metal, initiate nuclear weapons, and penetrate armor. A typical modern lined shaped charge can penetrate armor steel to a depth of seven or more times the diameter of the charge's cone (cone diameters, CD. In this work, the reactivity and penetration performance of ESMs have been examined as a shaped charge liner material. The penetration experiments of nickel-aluminum (Ni-Al) and copper-nickel-aluminum (Cu-Ni-Al)-shaped charge liners (SCLs) have been designed and fired into 45# steel Electroformed Liners for Shaped Charges, BRL Memorandum Report 892, June 1955. 18. Simon, J. and Martin, T.K., Spin Compensation of Shaped Charge Liners Manufactured by the Rotary Extrusion Process, BRL Memorandum Report 1181, December 1958. 19 Copper and aluminium liners of the shaped charge are presented as an example. It demonstrates that the decrease of liner material grain size may not always cause the increase of penetration depth...

A linear shaped charge (LSC) has a lining with V-shaped profile and varying length. The lining is surrounded with explosive, the explosive then encased within a suitable material that serves to protect the explosive and to confine (tamp) it on detonation. The charge is detonated at some point in the explosive above the lining apex The shaped charge consists of a case or container, the main explosive material, and a liner. The perforating gun consists of four components, a conveyance for the shaped charge such as a hollow carrier, the individual shaped charge, the detonator cord, and the detonator

Video: Shaped charge and explosively formed penetrator liners and

Explosively formed penetrator - Wikipedi

  1. A liner (18) for a shaped-charge (10) that is compressively formed from a mixture of powdered metal, powdered metal binder, and a selected quantity of nanoparticle material, is used to achieve improved penetration depths during perforation of a wellbore.Exemplary nanoparticles include lead, tin, copper, molybdenum, etc. Such nanoparticles increase the density, sound speed, or acoustic.
  2. A Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) or Linear Shaped Charge (LSC) is a continuous core enclosed in a seamless metal sheath. Charges are shaped in the form of an inverted V allowing the continuous metal sheath liner and encased explosive to produce a uniform linear cutting action upon detonation
  3. The use of copper‐tungsten alloys for shaped charge liners leads to an improving of the jet penetrability into an homogeneous steel target. In comparison with copper jets, the penetration depth can be increased by a factor 1.3. The improving is due to the increasing of both the density and the break‐up time
  4. ation Certificate. active. 07921778. ABSTRACT: A single phase metal alloy usually for for
  5. The shaped charge liner is made by copper. The density of the copper is 8932 kg/m 3. The thickness of the shaped charge liner is 1.5 mm. The charge height is 16 mm. Johnson-Cook constitutive model (Mareau 2020) is used for the description of the mechanical behavior of shaped charge liner

A liner for a shaped charge formed from a mixture of powdered tungsten and powdered metal binder. The liner is formed by compression of the mixture into a substantially conically shaped solid body the most widely known military shaped-charge device is the bazooka, which consists of a lined-cavity shaped charge mounted on a small rocket. Numerous other military shaped-charge devices have been devel- oped and used, ranging from warheads on projectiles and missiles to shapes for demolition purposes A non-precision conical tungsten shaped charge liner with a nominal purity of 99.99% W was fabricated through CVD. The as-prepared liner was not annealed and its original microstructure comprised coarse columnar grains. The length of the grains averaged 80 μm, with a diameter of about 16 μm. The liner was subjected to a high explosive. Most of the people here know about shaped charges and how they work, the principles behind it are fairly well known. Recently however, there has been research about a new 'class' of shaped charges: Reactive Liner Shaped Charges. As the name implies it's a shaped charge with a liner made out of a reactive material

Shaped Charge - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

What is a Shaped Charge? (with pictures

Shaped charges with plastic liner, concave recess and detonator is a Patent located in USA, in Ammunition and explosives, Blasting, Detonation wave modifying. Search LandOfFree.com for the USA inventors and patents. Rate them and share your experience with other people A model for shaped charge warhead design was developed. The model is incorporated in the computer code - CUMUL

This invention relates to the determination of parameters for selecting materials for use as liners in shaped charges to transfer the greatest amount of energy to the explosive jet Shaped charges are used in many civilian and military applications. This study focuses on the effects of liner material and the type of explosive on the development of shaped charge jet Tungsten copper military shaped charge liner is called the bomb's heart. It is the different properties of metal or alloy, in accordance with the design requirements of the Liner compounded play the comprehensive advantages. Advantage. 1. Compared with a single metal liners, energy conversion and absorption mechanism is more reasonable, more.

Materials | Free Full-Text | Application of PTFE/Al

Linear Shaped Charge - Precision Severance PacSci EM

Tungsten Alloy for Shaped Charge Liners-Tungsten Allo

  1. EXAMPLE: Our Shaped charge has a jet length of 80mm and the charge's liner is good, high quality steel , and we are attacking an AD-90 target.. Since Steel has a density of 7.86 g/cm 3, and AD-90 a density of 3.70 g/cm 3, so the left-hand side writes itself out as: (7.86 / 3.70) 0.5 = 1.46 Our Steel has a compressive yield of 463 MPA, and AD-90 a compressive yield of 2600 MPA, the right-hand.
  2. 66MM Hand Packable Shaped Charge: The 66mm Hand Packable Shaped Charge is an inert container housing a 66mm copper liner that produces a highly effective shaped charge to counter UXOs and IEDs. It is an easy to use counter charge, hand-packable with C4 explosives on site and uses an adapter to employ shock tube and blasting caps
  3. Keywords: linear shaped charges, target penetration, stand-off distance, Euler solver. 1 Introduction Liner shaped charges (LSCs) have the ability for the instantaneous cutting of the structures and have been used in the separation of the first and second stages, and the command destruction of solid rocket boosters (SRB) in the H-2A rocket. I
  4. The metal liners in the shaped charges form projectile jets of explosively formed metal that penetrate through the casing and far into the surrounding rock. The length of the jet is a function of the diameter of the metal liner. Jet lengths are generally many times the charge diameter, and carry enough kinetic energy to penetrate even farther..
  5. um casing. When the high explosive is detonated, the metal liner is compressed and squeezed forward, for

In order to prove the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) following detonation of copper and tantalum shape charge liner cones, reductions in the starting grain size of the liner cones and recovered slug and jet fragments were compared. Forged copper cone liner having a grain size of 15 micrometer was also produced and the end point microstructures were compared with previous results. OBJECTIVE: Develop a new high-strength nanostructured Ag or Ag alloy for shape charge and Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP) liner applications. DESCRIPTION: The U.S. Army requires a high strength Ag or Ag alloy for use as liners in explosively formed penetrators (EFPs) and shaped charges The concave section defines a shaped charge liner 20. Liner 20 has a reduced cross-sectional thickness from the portions of case 12 that surround cavities 14, 16. Liner 20 is designed to collapse, invert, and form an expanding annular jet 22, see FIG. 4, when the device is detonated. Case 12 and liner 20 ar In order to study the effects of liner materials on the formation of Shaped Charges with Double Layer Liners (SCDLL) into tandem Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP), the formation mechanism of DLSCL was studied. Utilizing two-dimensional finite element dynamic code AUTODYN, the numerical simulations on the mechanical phenomenon of SCDLL forming into tandem EFP were carried out

Abstract In this study, we aimed to demolish irregular constructions that are usually composed of convex, concave, and straight structures based on the shaped charge jet. Accordingly, the penetration behaviour of convergent, divergent, and straight linear shaped charges (LSCs) have been detected with numerical and physical methods In a shaped charge the liner is usually approximately cone shaped and fairly thin; in an EFP it is much shallower, more dish-like and thicker. The end result is that a shaped charge produces a. OTHER SHAPED CHARGES HEMISPHERICAL SHAPED CHARGE Liner turns inside out rather than being slapped together Results in a slower jet with a more uniform velocity profile Less likely to produce a slug and block the hole APPLICATIONS OF POINT FOCAL CHARGES INDUSTRIA 1 Hydrodynamic collapse of a shaped-charge liner..8 2. Plastic-flow collapse of a shaped-charge liner..10 3. Spherical-convergence collapse of a shaped-charge liner..11 4. Results of a shot through a target of lead and armor plate wit Two shaped charges illustrate this capability. The first is a linear charge used in rockets in the aerospace industry (AVI #63). Linear Shape Charge AVI Library #63(9.4MB) The second is the standard 81mm BRL shaped charge with a conical liner. 81 mm BRL shaped charge AVI Library # 64(1.06MB

Reactivity and Penetration Performance Ni-Al and Cu-Ni-Al

Patent US7493861 - Tandem shaped charge warhead having a

(Pdf) Shaped Charge Liner Material: Anisotropy Effect on

AND EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERISATION OF SHAPED CHARGES CONTAINING CONICAL MOLYBDENUM LINERS K. G. Cowan, B. Bourne DERA, Fort Halstead, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK, TN14 7BP 1. INTRODUCTION Molybdenum was first investigated as a shaped charge liner material because of its re-latively high bulk sound speed (5055.5 ms-1) at ambient pressure, and its. A shape charge liner concentrates the molten metal and hot gases into a narrow blast that cuts through the armor.This also extends into the interior of the vehicle, causing heavy damage and casualties Countermeasures. Presently, HEAT rounds are not as effective against modern composite tank armor or Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA). The reason. Difference from conventional shaped charges Formation of an EFP warhead. USAF Research Laboratory. A conventional shaped charge generally has a conical metal liner that projects a hypervelocity jet of metal able to penetrate to great depths into steel armour; however, in travel over some distance the jet breaks up along its length into particles that drift out of alignment, greatly diminishing. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators.

Materials | Free Full-Text | Simulation Study on Jet

Shaped charge Military Wiki Fando

The used shaped charge has a conical copper liner of angle 45 degree, a wall thickness of 1.3 mm and a charge calibre of 36.6 mm. The used explosive charge is composition C4 [ 24 ] of loading density 1.61 g/cm 3 and mass of 30 g, while the charge casing is made up of mild steel as shown in Figure 2 Cent. Eur. J. Energ. Mater., 2016, 13(4), 927-943; DOI: 10.22211/cejem/65141 A Modified Penetration Model for Copper-Tungsten Shaped Charge Jets with Non-uniform Density Distribution Tamer ELSHENAWY,1* Ahmed ELBEIH, 2 Qing Ming LI3 1 Technical Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt 2 Military Technical College, Kobry Elkobbah, Cairo, Egypt 3 The University of Manchester, School of Mechanical Aerospac Normal shaped charges involved explosive surrounding a hollow cone (known as a liner) made of copper. When the explosive detonates, the cone is converted into a high-speed jet that does the damage a) Cavity liner: Copper, zinc, glass, and tin If unavailable, cut a cone shaped cavity into the explosive b) Cavity angle: 42-45 degree (will work 30-60 degree) c) Explosive height: two times the cone height d) Standoff height: 1 ½ the diameter of cone e) Detonation point: exact top center of the charge Ensure cap is covered with explosiv

Shaped Charge Liner with Nanoparticles - HALLIBURTON

The rear-stage main charge forms a main jet through the small hole to penetrate the main armor. In this article, the damage of tandem shaped charge to armored target is studied when copper and new modified PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) materials are used as front-stage charge liner, and the numerical simulation results are verified by experiments Dpex Shaped charges DPEX energetic liner shaped charges substitute a defined amount of the inert liner components with reacting metals. These energetic components are transferred into the perforating tunnel together with the jet where a strong exothermic reaction takes place Shaped charges are sensitive to a number of factors. The liner must be of very pure and uniform material. Its uniformity of thickness is critical, such that a distinction is made between more or less standard shaped charges and precision shaped charges. The contact between the filler and the liner is also crucial

Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) PacSci EM

Materials | Free Full-Text | Reactivity and Penetration

SHAPED CHARGE EFFECTS First discovered by von Förster 1883 coin and leaf impressions Charles E. Munroe rediscovered the effect from 1888 Munroe developed first lined shaped charge 1894 - tin can with dynamite tied around it WASAG / E and M Neumann in Germany 1911 Shaped charge development accelerated between 1935 and 1950 Franz Rudolph THOMANEK for Germany - First use-able lined SCs Henry Hans MOHAUPT for United States / United Kingdom SCs used in bazooka, panzerfaust and other device Defense parts: shape charge liners, ammunition components and missile components. Peterson Spinning and Stamping is proud to be ISO 9001:2015 certified. Create a website or blog at WordPress.co The metal jet formed by the shaped charge liner after the detonation of the warhead is extremely fragile, that is biggest issue of shaped charges The M2A4 Charge is supplied with a stand-off support that fits on the bottom end of the charge to provide stand-off distance for shape charge effectiveness. It will perforate 90 cm of reinforced concrete and 30 cm of armour plate. Image showing demolition bridge (left) and demolition metal (right) Above ground vinyl pool liner installation costs range from $200 to $800, while inground liner installers charge between $1,000 and $2,500 for labor. Experienced pool repair contractors will recommend high-quality products and offer package deals that includes the liner, materials, and labor.. Pool Liner Installation Cost By Size. When determining the overall costs, the size of the pool will.

HOME // Explosives // Defence & Security. Linear Cutting Charges. Linear cutting charges present a good compromise between performance (cutting effect) and collateral damages: the energy generated during the blast is focused on specific areas for greater efficiency with less explosive.. EURENCO designs and develops flexible and non-flexible linear cutting charges for both military and. The shaped charge or jet perforator uses a small amount of high explosive and a carefully shaped case and liner to create a focused pressure punch that is highly effective in piercing steel, cement, and rock. The jet is formed through a highly critical, but usually reliable, sequence of events A shaped charge liner is an explosive charge shaped to focus the energy of the explosive. Their are used for nuclear weapons, armour penetrating munitions and industrial explosive and penetration applications. Cone shapes are most commonly used, having an internal apex angle of 40 to 90 degrees Shaped Charge Calculations using Eulerian Method . Viper Shaped Charge. Tantalum Hemi-spherical Shaped Charge. Bi-conical Copper Shaped Charge. Oil Well Perforator P-C. Copper Hemi-spherical Liner with PBX-W-113 (Energetic Explosive) Calculations of the Hemi-spherical Copper Shaped Charge. Bi-conical Copper Shaped Charge with PBX-940

Copper‐Tungsten Shaped Charge Liner and its Jet - Tie‐Fu

Jet radius or liner thickness, shell thickness, liner material density, α angle and stand-off distance are evaluated in purpose to investigate their effect on performance of shaped charge jet velocity and jet breakup phenomena, also we investigate the effect of stand-off distance on shaped charge jet penetration into steel target Shaped charges are widely used for perforations in the field of oil and gas production. Tungsten-copper (W-Cu) is an attractive material for shaped charge liner due to the combination of the high density of W and the good plasticity of Cu. However, W and Cu are not mutually soluble NERA and NxRA operate similarly to explosive reactive armour, but without the explosive liner. Two metal plates sandwich an inert liner, such as rubber. When struck by a shaped charge's metal jet, some of the impact energy is dissipated into the inert liner layer, and the resulting high pressure causes a localized bending or bulging of the plates in the area of the impact

Prior to the introduction of lined shaped charge perforators, almost all research emphasis was placed on increasing the depth of bullet penetration. The lined shaped charge perforator a/k/a the jet perforator or jet charge has displaced the old bullet perforators (nearly to extinction), and this is the story of their development A shaped charge uses high explosives to form a metallic liner into a high velocity jet of molten metal. The velocity gradients in the jet cause it to stretch several times it original length with tip velocities that can greatly exceed 8 kilometers per second. At late times the jet fragments into small pieces shaped charge is comprised of a high precision forged and machined liner made from C101 Oxygen Free Copper (OFE, UNS C10100) and a bare billet LX-14 pressed billet configuration that is machined to final dimensions. Figure 5 presents a drawing of the 81mm shaped charge copper liner. Experimental characterization of the LX-14 81mm shaped charge Shaped Wire and Profile Wire Shaped Wire is produced to exacting cross-sectional dimensions in our dedicated shaped wire facility. Shaped profile wire minimizes or eliminates costly machining by being net, or near net, in shape. The rolled and shaped wire reduces your scrap costs and can be supplied in continuous coil form or cut to length

Single phase tungsten alloy for shaped charge liner is a

13 SHAPED CHARGE GENERALITIES 309 13.1 Shaped Charge Variables, 309 13.2 The Explosive Fill and Initiation Mode, 313 13.3 Jet Characteristics, 319 References, 323 14 EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS 329 14.1 Conical Shaped Charge Liners, 329 14.2 Shaped Charge Liner Collapse and Jet Formation, 343 14.3 Shaped Charges with Hemispherical Liners, 35 Shaped charge liner Perforating debris sources can be controlled if properly engineered. Shape charge liner used in deep penetrating charges is made of powder metal, which eliminates the carrot and slug associated with liner penetration into the formation during charge detonation Expedient shaped charge characteristics? Cavity liner Cavity angle (42-45 ideal, 30-60 will work) Explosive height (2x cone height) Standoff distance (1.5 diameter of cone) Detonation point (exact top center) What is the expedient shape charge formula? Vcyl - VC = VE A shape charge liner concentrates the molten metal and hot gases into a narrow blast that cuts through the armor.This also extends into the interior of the vehicle, causing heavy damage and casualtie

Finite element modeling of the shaped charge jet and

• The charge liner shall be made from a high quality oxygen free copper and its construction described. • Initiation methods will be specified to assure consistent and strong symmetric initiation. • The shaped charge shall be designed such that the output after penetrating a conditioning plate matche A PIBD fuze assembly with an RDX spit-back charge and copper cone liner is fitted to the opening of the projectile cavity. The cavity is sealed by the fuze assembly and contains the high explosive shaped charge. The projectile assembly is press-fitted into the cartridge case assembly

Materials | Free Full-Text | Penetration Behavior of High

1.1 Spin Compensation in Shaped Charge Liners A shaped charge consists of an explosive charge with a hollow cavity lined by a thin layer of metal (Figure 1-1). This metal liner is typically conical and can be made of copper, tantalum, or other ductile metals (Figure 1-2). When the explosive charge detonates, the liner collapses and forms a high. This parachute stabilizes the grenade in flight and ensures that the grenade strikes the target at a 90 degree angle, maximising the effect of the shaped charge. Armour penetration is 170 mm and 220 mm for steel and copper (RKG-3ЕM) conical liner versions respectively Demolition Shaped Charges. These charges are shaped so as to concentrate their explosive force in a particular direction. They use high explosives to form a metallic or glass liner into a high velocity jet of molten material with the ability to stretch several times its original length FLEXIBLE LINER SHAPED CHARGE. Description. Flexible Linear Shaped Charge (FLSC) is a V-shaped, flexible lead sheathing containing a high explosive core. FLSC is used in separation assemblies to sever various types, thicknesses, and shapes of materials. The specific type, shape and thickness of the material to be separation, dictates the amount.

A Comp-B loaded shaped charge with a copper liner and pointed cone apex had a jet tip temperature ranging from 668 K to 863 K over a five shot sampling. Octol-loaded charges with a rounded cone apex generally had higher surface temperatures with an average of 810 K, and the temperature of a tin-lead liner with Comp-B fill averaged 842 K What are some common liner materials used in shape charges? copper, steel, glass and aluminum. Define Standoff? The distance from the face of the charge to the target; this is the distance required for the jet to properly form; between 2-6 times the diameter of the cone Synonyms for shaped in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for shaped. 2 synonyms for shaped: molded, wrought. What are synonyms for shaped Shaped charge ammunition is a frequent clearance task for EOD units and occurs primarily as rocket propelled grenades to light anti-tank weapons, sub-munitions and landmines, but can actually occur in most ammunition types, from simple hand grenades to missiles A shape charge liner concentrates the molten metal and hot gases into a narrow blast that CUTS through the armor. :Ds. Edited November 23, 2015 by *CptCosmic. Share this post. Link to post Share on other sites. Kazumi_ 6,568 Kazumi_ 6,568 Kitty! Member; 6,568 4,486 posts; Gender:.

RPG-43 H

The process of shaped charge jet formation, fragmentation, and penetration in rolled-homogenous armor steel target plates was investigated using the explicit, nonlinear Lagrangian finite element method. The investigation was conducted in two dimensions utilizing an axisymmetric configuration for a shaped charge with a 40 mm cone diameter Perforating system shaped charge testing techniques: SS-05 vs API RP 19B Sec.1 Test objects (charges) typing Type 1 - charged with powder composite liners; Group А 1 - charges of powder liners with straight linear generatric form made of cuprum or cuprum-lead composition with high density component (e.g., tungsten); Group А A 10,500 grain per foot (gr/ft.) linear shaped charge (LSC) was developed to cut targets that were too thick for smaller LSC. The manufacturer observed shallower penetration from the 10,500 gr/ft. LSC than was expected. This prompted investigations to uncover the cause of the perceived reduced performance. A study performed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology changed the. A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is a spherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator LSC is a strip-shaped charge structure, which is composed of a metal liner, insensitive explosive, and non-metallic shell. The LSC detonated at the center point. The center of the shell is perforated to insert the detonator to ensure that the detonator is in good contact with the explosive, as shown in Figure 1 The original RKG-3 used a basic shaped charge with a steel liner and had a penetration of 125 mm against Rolled Homogeneous Armor (RHA). The RKG-3M used a copper-lined shaped-charge warhead and had a penetration of 165 mm; the RKG-3T had an improved copper liner that had a penetration of 170 mm

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